Who are the Tafziliya? Introduction & List of Books written in their Refutation

12/12/2012 20:34


Who are the Tafziliya?


The ‘Tafziliya’ is a sect from amongst the ‘Rawafiz’ or ‘Shiya’ with the most resemblance and proximity to the ‘Ahl us Sunnah wal Jamah’ in Doctrinal matters. The main characteristic features of this sect are as follows,


1.They consider Sayyiduna Ali bin Abu Talib  to be more meritorious in status and proximity to Allah Almighty than the first three ‘Khulafa’, that is, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq , Sayyiduna Umar bin Khattab  and Sayyiduna Usman bin Affan . Unlike, the normal ‘Rawafiz’ they hold these three ‘Khulafa’ to be rightly guided, accept their ‘Khilafa’ and do not disparage or abuse them in any way.


This is their major and fundamental Doctrine {‘Aqidah’} that is, giving Merits and Status {‘Tafzil’} to Sayyiduna Ali bin Abu Talib  more than the first three ‘Khulafa’. Therefore, they have been named as ‘Tafziliya’.


There are some other characteristic features which may or may not be present in some groups of ‘Tafziliya’.


2.Some disparage Sayyiduna Amir Mu’awiya  because of his skirmishes with Sayyiduna Ali  in the Battle of Siffin (36 A.H), his proclaiming of ‘Khilafa’ and sometimes because of his son Yazid bin Muawiya!


The above is another additional major doctrinal characteristic of the ‘Tafziliya’. Some other minor features are as follows,


3.Some hold; rather exert all their might to declare Abu Talib - the father of Sayyiduna Ali  as a Muslim.

4.Some practise ‘Ta’ziya’, ‘Alam’ and hold ‘Marsiya’ or ‘Shahadah’ gatherings just like mainstream ‘Rawafiz’.


The ‘Tafziliya’ are the stepping stone towards becoming ‘Rawafiz’ in many ways for the people of ‘Ahl us Sunnah’ because of its similarity with the ‘Ahl us Sunnah’ in all the major Doctrines {‘Aqayid’} and Practices {‘A’mal’} except the above mentioned! The ‘Tafziliya’ has much influence on some of the ignorant masses of Muslims in the Indian Sub-continent especially the ignorant and fake ‘Sufis’, penetrating their ranks on the basis of love of Sayyiduna Ali , the ‘Ahl ul Bayt’ and in some cases genealogical affiliations with the ‘Ahl ul Bayt’.


For the ‘Sufis’ affected with the deviations of the ‘Tafziliya’, we shall quote the following:


1.The giant Sufi Chishti Scholar of India, who belonged to the ‘Ahl ul Bayt’ of the Prophet - Ghawth al Alam Makhdum Sayyid Ashraf Jahangir Simnani  writes: “We Believe in Allah and His Prophet . We also believe in the merits of all the companions {‘Sahaba’} of the Prophet  and also declare that the most worthy of ‘Khilafa’ and also the most meritorious in status among all the Muslims was Sayyiduna Abu Bakr bin Quhafa , then Sayyiduna Umar , then Sayyiduna Usman  and then Sayyiduna Ali . All my disciples, brothers, admirers and followers / devotees should remember that we used to believe in this, still believe in it and will believe in it forever! It is the Hadith of the Prophet  that: “Man will die in the state in which he passes his life and he will be resurrected in the state in which he died!” The one whose Doctrine {‘Aqidah’} is not as above is astray and misguided. We are discontented with them and Allah Almighty is displeased with them!” {Hujjat uz Zakirin & Risala Qabriya; 19}

2.Qutb ul Islam Imam ul Asfiya Sayyid Muhammad Husayni Gaysu Daraz Banda Nawaz  says: “The Correct Doctrine {‘Madhab’} is that Amir ul Muminin Abu Bakr  is the most Meritorious among the Sahaba, then Sayyiduna Umar , then Sayyiduna Usman , then Sayyiduna Ali , then other Sahaba and respected Awliya. And whatever is said apart from this is fanciness / superstition {‘Tuhmaat’} and imaginative propaganda and this is Astrayness!” {Jawami’ ul Kalim;67-68}

Infact, Sayyidi Banda Nawaz mentions this ‘Aqidah’ of Ahl us Sunnah wal Jamah’ at not less than three places in his collection of ‘Malfuzat’ {Sayings}. i.e ‘Jawami ul Kalim’. Similarly, Shaykh Sayyid Akbar Husayni-the son of Sayyidi Banda Nawaz refutes the Aqidah of ‘Tafzil’ in his excellent book ‘Kitab ul Aqayid’, page: 107.

3. Mujaddid Alf Thani Shaykh Ahmad Faruqi Naqshbandi Sirhindi states: “The Merits of ‘Shaykhayn’ {Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Umar} on the entire ‘Ummah’ is definitive {‘Qattayi’}, it can be negated only by him who is an Ignorant or is a Bigot/ prejudiced.” {Maktubat Mujaddid Alf Thani; V: 2, Maktub 36}


This has been summed up to declare that the noble ‘Sufiya’ of the Quadriya and Chishtiya Tariqahs of the Indian subcontinent have long back clarified and expounded the matter of ‘Tafzil’ in their respective books and discourses according to the Doctrine {‘Aqidah’} of ‘Ahl us Sunnah wal Jamah’. May Allah Almighty sanctify their states and secrets! Amin!


It is the Consensus {‘Ijma’} of the Scholars of Islam that the ‘Tafziliya’ are not Disbelievers {‘Kafir’}, but are actually innovators, astray and misguided. This legal opinion is only regarding the ‘Tafziliya’ with the first characteristic feature mentioned above, while the legal ruling regarding other groups of ‘Tafziliya’ change according to the combination and intensity of their different doctrines mentioned above!

Apart from ‘Ghayat ut Tahqiq fi Imamat il Ali was Siddiq <1301> ’, the great Imam Ahmad Raza Khan authored no less than 20 books in refutation of the ‘Rawafiz’ or ‘Shiya’ and ‘Tafziliya’, the details of which are as follows:


  • ‘Radd al Rafazah’ <1320> – refuting the Rafizis and that a Sunni can neither inherit from nor marry them; 
  • ‘Al Adilla al Ta’ina fi Adhan al Mala’ina’ <1306> – refuting the Rafizi Azan and the belief of ‘Khalifa bila Fasl’; 
  • ‘I’ali al Ifaza fi Ta’ziyati al-Hind wa Bayan al Shahada’ <1321> – the ruling on Ta’ziya and the transmission of the Shahada; 
  • ‘Jaza’a Allah ‘Aduwwa bi Ibanihi Khatm al Nubuwwa’ <1317> – refuting the Mirza’is and Rafizis; 
  • ‘Al Kalam al Bahi fi Tashbih al Siddiq bi al Nabi’ <1297–Arabic> – the similarities of Sayyiduna Siddiq Akbar with the Beloved Prophet;
  • ‘Al Zulal al Anqa min Bahri Sabqat al Atqa’ <1300> – the Tafsir of the verse ‘Inna akramakum indallahi atqakum’ and the qualities of Sayyiduna Siddiq Akbar; 
  • ‘Matla’ al-Qamarayn fi Ibanati Sabqat al Umarayn’ <1297> – a detailed work on the precedence and merits of Shaykhayn; 
  • ‘Wajh al Mashuq bi Jalwat Asma’ al Siddiq wa al Faruq’ <1297> – the names of Shaykhayn that are mentioned in the Hadith; 
  • ‘Jam’a al Quran wa Bima ‘Azawhu al Uthman’ <1322> – how the Quran was compiled and why Sayyiduna Uthman is specifically called Jami’ ul Quran; 
  • ‘Al Bushra al Ajila min Tuhafa Ajila’ <1300> – refuting the Tafziliya and insulters of Sayyiduna Amir Mu’awiya; 
  • ‘Arshu al I’zaz wa al Ikram li Awwali Maluk al Islam’ <1312> – the merits of Sayyiduna Amir Mu’awiya; 
  • ‘Dhabbu al Ahwa’i al Wahiya fi Babi al Amir Mu’awiya’ <1312> – answering the insulters of Sayyiduna Amir Mu’awiya; 
  • ‘Ahlam al Sahabati al Muwafiqin li al Amir Mu’awiya wa Umm al Mu’minin’ <1312> – list of companions who were with Umm ul Mu’minin and Sayyiduna Amir Mu’awiya; 
  • ‘Al Ahadith al Rawiya li Madhi al Amir Mu’awiya’ <1313> – the Hadiths that mention the Merits of Sayyiduna Amir Mu’awiya; 
  • ‘Al Jaruhu al Walij fi Batni al Khawarij’ <1305> – refuting the Tafziliya and the transgressive amongst them; 
  • ‘Al Samsam al Haydari ‘ala Humqi al ‘Ayyari al Muftari’ <1304> – refuting the Tafziliya and the transgressive amongst them; 
  • ‘Al Ra’ihatu al ‘Anbariya ‘an al Jamrati al Haydariya’ <1310> – the issue of Tafzil in all aspects; 
  • ‘Lam’at al Sham’a li Huda Shiy’at al Shan’a’ <1312> – answering 7 questions on Tafzil and Tafsiq; 
  • ‘Sharh al Matalib fi Mabhath Abi Talib’ <1316> – proving from 130 books of Tafsir and Aqidah that Abu Talib did not accept Islam!


Among others who authored on this topic both before and after Imam Ahmad Raza Khan are:


  • Imam ul Muhaddithin Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavu authored ‘Qurrat ul Aynayn fi Tafzil ush Shaykhayn’; 
  • Siraj ul Hind Hujjat ul Islam Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dahlavi who authored ‘Tuhfa Isna Ashariya’ and ‘Sirr ul Jalil fi Mas’alat it Tafzil’;
  • Taj ul Fuhul Shah Abdul Quadir Muhibb ur Rasul Quadri Badayuni who authored ‘Radd ul Rawafiz’ and ‘Tasih ul Aqidah fi Bab Amir al Muawiya’; 
  • Hakim ul Ummah Ashraf ul Mufassirin Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Ashrafi Nayimi who authored ‘Amir Muawiya’; and 
  • Ghazi al Millat Sayyid Hashmi Ashrafi Jilani Kichochavi who authored ‘Amir Muawiya- Khalifat ur Rashid’, etc.


Compiled by

Basharath Ali Siddiqui Ashrafi

Ashrafiya Islamic Foundation

Hyderabad, India.