Shaykh al Islam Muhammad Anwarullah Faruqui Fazilat Jung, Khan Bahadur - Founder of Jamiya Nizamiya, Hyderabad (1264 - 1336 A.H / 1847 - 1918 C.E)
Shaykh al Islam
Muhammad Anwarullah Faruqui
‘Fazilat Jung, Khan Bahadur’ - Founder of Jamiya Nizamiya, Hyderabad
1264 - 1336 A.H / 1847 - 1918 C.E
The Graceful Sufi, the Masterful Alim, the Exceptional Reviver of Ahl us Sunnah, the Peerless Author, the Pillar of Islam, the tutor of the Nizams of Deccan—Shaykh al Islam Shah Muhammad Anwarullah Faruqui Quadri Chishti Sabri was born in 1264 A.H/ 1847 C.E at Nanded, presently a district of Maharashtra, then a province of the Nizam state. His family lineage reaches the Second Khalifa of Islam; Sayyiduna Umar bin Khattab (razi Allahu anh) through his noble son Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar (razi Allahu anh).... Among the ancestors of Shaykh al Islam was the great nobleman of Kabul- Shahabuddin Faruqui who later migrated to India and among the descendents of Shahabuddin Faruqui were giant Sufi Scholars Khwaja Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar and Mujaddid Alf Thani Imam Shaykh Ahmad Faruqui Naqshbandi Sirhindi! Thus, Shaykh al Islam shares his lineage with these two savants of Islam from Shahabuddin Faruqui!
Shaykh al Islam’s father- Qazi Abu Muhammad Shujauddin (1225-1288 A.H) was a great Islamic scholar who was born at Qandhar, Nanded district. He had the privilege of memorizing the Holy Quran and being under the tutorship of Mawlvi Karamat Ali at Hyderabad. He was later appointed the ‘Munsif’ of Dharoor, then Nirmal in Adilabad district and finally Aurangabad in Maharashtra.
Shaykh al Islam was born in a scholarly family. Therefore, he received his initial education under his father and memorised the Holy Quran under a distinguished Scholar who lost his eyesight, Hafiz Amjad Ali at the young age of 11 years! He learnt some basic Fiqh basic books from his father and then went on to study under the great scholars of Farangi Mahal, Lukhnow like Mawlana Abdul Hayy Farangi Mahali and Mawlana Abdul Haleem Farangi Mahali and Tafasir of the Holy Quran under Shaykh Abdullah Yamani at Hyderabad.
Baiyah and Khilafah
Shaykh al Islam took the Pledge of Allegiance (Baiyah) in the Quadriya tariqah at the hands of his father. He repeated his Baiyah in Makkah al Mukarramah at the time of Hajj at the hands of the great Sunni Scholar Shaykh al Mashaikh Haji Imdadullah Chishti Sabri Muhajir Makki. He was later bestowed with the ‘Khilafa’ of Quadriya and Chishtiya tariqahs from Shaykh al Mashaikh.
Marriage and appointment at the Revenue Department
Shaykh al Islam married the daughter of Haji Ameeruddin in 1282 A.H/ 1865 C.E and three years later he was appointed as précis writer in the Department of Revenue in the Nizam government. He soon resigned his job for the Fear of Allah and this shows tons of his undeterred determination to uphold the Shariah at every level of his life! The incident is as follows, “As a précis writer, Shaykh al Islam had to go through numerous files which dealt with various accounts at the revenue department. Once, he was given a file that dealt with the accounts of Interest on Loans. As according to Islamic Shariah, Interest is ‘Haram’ to the extent that the giver, the receiver and the maintainer of records of Interest are all liable to punishment. Shaykh al Islam keeping this Scared Shariah ruling in mind at once resigned from his job even though the authorities promised that he would not be given such files. The reason which Shaykh al Islam said to his superiors was, “Today you are giving me concession, but someday another superior might com and may not be lenient to me in this matter, moreover, there is also a chance of me being held responsible for not discharging the duties properly as a honest servant must discharge all the duties!”
Towards Islamic Tutorship
After resigning from his job, Shaykh al Islam had to deal with a lot of economic problems yet he passed those tremulous days with great confidence in Allah. He soon started a ‘Maktab’ at the ‘Jama Masjid Afzalganj’ and the fame of Shaykh al Islam as an Islamic scholar and an able administrator of an institution spread far and wide. During those same days, a nobleman from Madina Munawwarah - Mawlvi Hafiz Ghulam Quadir came to Hyderabad and wanted to start a ‘Madrasa’ on a larger scale and with a brighter vision. After consulting his numerous friends, he decided to conduct a meeting at the house of Muhammad Muzaffaruddin, the Deputy Director of the Postal Department. At this meeting on 19th Dhil Hijjah 1292 A.H/ 1875 C.E, a resolution was passed on starting a new Madrasa- ‘Madrasa e Nizamiya’ under the leadership of Shaykh ul Islam Anwarullah Faruqui.
Initially there was no permanent income of the ‘Madrasa’ and it was run on the contributions of generous Muslims. Such was the state of Shaykh al Islam’s Zuhd (Ascetism) that after paying of all the expenses of the ‘Madrasa’ and the salaries of other teachers, the meagre remains used to be taken by him! This shows his Zuhd and contentment of all that used to come to him and his immense sacrifice for the upliftment and growth of ‘Madrasa Nizamiya’.
Hajj and Ziyarat
In 1294 A.H, Shaykh al Islam visited Makkah for Hajj and it was here that he met his Pir wa Murshid- Shaykh al Mashaikh Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Chishti Sabri Makki. During his stay at Makkah and Madinah, Shaykh al Islam strived very hard to collect Islamic manuscripts and books for the Library of ‘Madrasa Nizamiya’. In his zeal for books he began copying the manuscripts and books with his own hands and collected a large source of Islamic learning. These manuscripts were brought to Hyderabad when he returned and some were published by the Old Boys Association of ‘Jamiya Nizamiya’. There are still numerous books that are still in manuscript form and are yet to be published!
Blessed with a Dream
His love for Makkah and Madinah and closeness to his Pir wa Murshid made him to decide to stay in the Hijaz. But, in Makkah, he dreamt of the Beloved RasulAllah (Sal Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam) ordering him to return to his native place and get involved in the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the service of Ahl us Sunnah! Thus, Shaykh al Islam returned to Hyderabad and continued teaching at the ‘Madrasa Nizamiya’.
Shaykh ul Islam becomes the Teacher of the Nizams of Deccan!
Obeying to the Prophetic command brought immense blessings to Shaykh al Islam there after. The ruler of Hyderabad at that time was a very young Nawab- i.e. Mir Mahbub Ali Khan. Sir Salar Jung I was the caretaker of the government along with him. The young Nawab was still pursuing his studies under the great Islamic Scholar- Allamah Muhammad Zaman Shah ‘Shaheed’. But, due to clashes between the Sunnis and the Mahdavis on matters of Aqidah, a Mahdavi Pathan brutally killed the pious ‘Allamah Zaman Shah’ who thus attained the status of a Martyr (Shaheed). His brother ‘Allamah Maseeh uz Zaman was then appointed to teach the young king but vowing to extreme responsibilities of the religious department made him to confer his excuse to the administration. Sir Salar Jung I and Nawab Rasheeduddin Khan had already heard about the Scholarly exploits and acumen of Shaykh al Islam so they requested ‘Shaykh al Islam’ to take up the responsibility of educating the young king. Shaykh al Islam was at first reluctant to take up the responsibility due to his ascetic nature, but the noblemen and other scholarly dignitaries forced him to accept the honour and opportunity to disseminate Islam. Shaykh al Islam did ‘Istiqarah’ in which he was Divinely inspired to take up the duty that was been offered to him.
The Title of ‘Khan Bahadur’
The young king- Mir Mahbub Ali Khan was officially coroneted in the year 1301 A.H/ 1883 C.E and upon his coronation he presented his esteemed teacher with the title of ‘Khan Bahadur’. This same year Shaykh al Islam went for Hajj and Ziyarah of the Madinah.
In 1305 A.H/1885 C.E, he again visited the Hijaz and authored the famous book ‘Anwar e Ahmadi’ in Madinah against the revilers of the status of Prophets and Awliya Allah, - the notorious anti Islamic sects ‘Wahhabiya’ and ‘Qadianiya’. He stayed in the Hijaz for Three years in which he copied many more Islamic manuscripts and sent them back to Hyderabad. In 1308 A.H he returned to Hyderabad.
A Royal Reception and Authority
When Shaykh al Islam returned to Hyderabad, the King Mir Mahbub Ali Khan asked his teacher to teach his son, the heir to the sultanate of Nizams - Mir Usman Ali Khan. Shaykh al Islam began teaching the young prince till 1329 A.H/1911 C.E, the year of coronation of the King - Mir Usman Ali Khan.
The same year, Shaykh al Islam was made the ‘Director of the Ecclesiastical Department’, a prestigious post whose decisions are upheld in the court of Law. In 1332 A.H/ 1913 C.E when Nawab Muzaffar Jung, the Minister of Islamic Affairs died, Shaykh al Islam was presented with this important Ministry. Thus, Shaykh al Islam became the supreme Qazi and authority of Religious Affairs in the Nizam Sultanate. The King then deputed the noble Shaykh al Islam to teach his two sons, Nawab Azam Jah Bahadur and Nawab Muazzam Jah Bahadur. Shaykh al Islam thus had the honour of teaching the three successive generations of Nizams, a rare privilege.
In 1335 A.H/ 1917 C.E, the Nizam- Mir Usman Ali Khan conferred the title of ‘Fazilat Jung’ to Shaykh al Islam in tribute to his contribution to Islam.
It is a fact that Shaykh al Islam was second greatest scholar which south India produced after the giant Sufi Sayyid Muhammad Husayni Chishti ‘Gaysu Daraz – Banda Nawaz’.
Bibliography of His Books
1. Maqasid al Islam (11 Parts, approximately 2100 pages): This book of Shaykh ul Islam contains important articles on the topics of Aqayid of Ahl us Sunnah, refutation of the astray sects of Islam such as the Wahhabiya and its sub sects like the ‘Naychariya’ on matters related to Milad, concept of ‘Biddah’, Urs, Hearing of the Dead, Miracles of Prophets, Marvels of Awliya Allah, refutation of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan of Aligarh, refutation of the Qadiyani Dajjal- Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, history of astray sects of Islam such as Khawarij, Mu’tazila, etc.
2. Ifaadat al Ifhaam (2 parts, approximately 800 pages): This book was even praised by the giant Sunni Scholar Imam al Huda Ahmad Raza Khan Quadri Bareilvi. It contains refutation of the Qadiyani Fitnah and in-depth analysis of his false claims.
3. Haqiqat al Fiqh (2 parts, approximately 670 pages): An excellent book on the History of Fiqh and related Issues with special mention of Imam al A’zam Abu Hanifa and his students in Fiqh.
4. Kitab al Aql: An important book of 328 pages by Shaykh al Islam on the usage of Intellect in matters of Religion and the extent to which it is permissible.
5. Anwar e Ahmadi: The most famous book of Shaykh al Islam refuting the Wahhabiya and Qadianiya fitnas. It received two editions, one concise edition was edited and published by the great Ahl us Sunnah scholar Allamah Arshad al Quadri from ‘Maktaba Jame Noor’, Delhi and numerous other editions from ‘Majlis Ishat al Ulum’, Jamiya Nizamiya, Hyderabad.
6. Anwar al Haq: A refutation of ‘Tayid al Haq’ of the Qadiyani scholar, Hasan Ali Qadiyani. This books also contains numerous remarks against the Wahhabiya and spans 116 pages.
7. Al Kalam al Marfu’ fima Yata’aluq bil Ahadith al Mawzu’: Spanning 120 pages, this books sums the principles and Ahkam related to the Fabricated Hadiths, its identifications and critical points, its numerous flaws, characteristics and attribution methods to the Prophet and the Sahaba. This book also contains refutations of the Ghayr Muqallidin i.e. the present day Ahle Hadith and Salafiya.
8. Khuda ki Khudrat: An excellent but concise monologue on the proofs of ‘Istimdad’ and ‘Istighasa’ in the form of poetry.
9. Khalq e Af’aal: A brief monologue on the creation of actions and the correct doctrine regarding it.
10. Anwarullah al Wadud fi Masalata Wahdat al Wajud: An excellent book on the logical proves of the Concept of ‘Wahdat al Wajud’ of Shaykh al Akbar Muhyuddin Ibn Arabi.
11. Shamim al Anwar: A collection of poetry by Shaykh ul Islam which includes ‘Hamd’, ‘Na’ats’, ‘Manqabats’ and ‘Ghazals’ in Arabic, Persian and Urdu.
Students of Shaykh al Islam
1. Nawab Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, the Ruler of Nizam state.
2. Nawab Mir Usman Ali Khan, the Ruler of Nizam state.
3. Nawab Mir A’zam and Mu’azzam Ali Khan, the sons of the Nizams of Hyderabad.
4. Mufti Muhammad Raheemuddin Quadri.
5. Allamah Sayyid Badshah Husayni Quadri Laeeq, Quadri Chaman.
6. Muhaddith al Deccan Sayyid Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi Quadri.
7. Faqih al Deccan Allamah Abul Wafa Sayyid Mahmud Shah Afghani.
8. Mufti Ruknuddin Quadri, the first Mufti of Jamiya Nizamiya.
9. Mufti Sayyid Mahmud, the chief Mufti of Maysaram, Karnataka.
10. Mufti Habeebullah al Madeeh Hazrami Shafai’.
11. Mufti Sayyid Mahmud, the Khatib of Makkah Masjid.
12. Sayyid Ghulam Quadir Za’am, the father of Dr. ‘Zor’ Hyderbadi.
13. Allamah Sayyid Ibrahim Adeeb Razvi Najafi.
14. Mufti Qazi Muhammad Sharifuddin, Da’airat ul Ma’arif. Etc.
This Luminary of Islam and Ahl us Sunnah, the Shaykh al Islam of Muslims, the Pious, the Ascetic, the God-wary Scholar passed away in 1336 A.H/1918 C.E. His Funeral prayer was offered in the famous ‘Makkah Masjid’ attended by lakhs of Muslims from around the Nizam Sultanate. Shaykh al Islam was then buried in the premises of his beloved Madrasa- ‘Jamiya Nizamiya’. The Sultan Mir Usman Ali Khan was not in Hyderabad and thus condoled the death of his teacher over the telephone and paid a visit to the mausoleum of Shaykh al Islam as soon as he reached Hyderabad. It was upon his suggestion that Shaykh al Islam was buried in the premises of ‘Jamiya Nizamiya’ so that his love, dedication and continuation with the great Institution which he founded be even after his demise.
Note: This biography is concise and can not in any way summarise the immense contributions of Shaykh al Islam Fazilat Jung to Islam & Ahl us Sunnah! It has been written just to provide glimpses of his noble life and works! Inshallah, in the near future, an attempt will be made to present the complete chronicles of this great scholar.
Compiled For ‘Mahnama Batha, Hyderabad’s ‘Shaykh al Islam’s Number’ & for free distribution in the cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore & Gulbarga on the Birth Anniversary of Shaykh al Islam.
Forthcoming Biographies of the Scholars of Deccan
Muhaddith al Deccan Allama Sayyid Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi Quadri.
Sayf al Islam Sayyid Muhammad Umar Husayni Quadri Hanbali Hyderabadi.
Wayiz al Lasani Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Badshah Husayni Quadri.
Shahid al Ahlus Sunnah Allamah Muhammad Zaman Shah Shahid.
Muhaqqiq al Dawran Faqih al Deccan Allamah Sayyid Abul Wafa Afghani Hanafi Quadri.
Shaykh al Quran Bahr al Ulum Allama Mufti Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui Quadri.
Compiled and Edited by
Basharath Ali Siddiqui Quadri Ashrafi; firstname.lastname@example.org