Ajmal al Ulama Mufti Ajmal Quadri Razvi (1318-1383 A.H / 1900-1963 C.E)
AJMAL AL ULAMA
Mufti Ajmal Quadri Razvi
(1318-1383 A.H / 1900-1963 C.E)
Faqih al Asr, Ajmal al Ulama, Muhaddith, conquering Debater, erudite Master Tutor of Hanafi Fiqh in the subcontinent, Muhammad Ajmal Quadri Razvi Ashrafi Nayimi Hanafi bin Hafiz Muhammad Akmal was born at Sambhal, Muradabad, India in 1318 A.H / 1900 C.E.
He completed the Holy Quran under his illustrious father Shaykh Muhammad Akmal Quadri (1266-1356 A.H / 1848-1938 C.E) who was a well known scholar of his period. He studied elementary Persian and Urdu works under his uncle Shaykh Muhammad Afzal and completed his education till Sharh al Jamiunder his cousin Shaykh Muhammad Imaduddin Sambhali.
Ajmal al Ulama joined the famous Islamic Madrasa of India Jamiya Nayimiya, Muradabad and studied under Sadr al Afazil Sayyid Nayimuddin Muhaddith Quadri Ashrafi Muradabadi (1300-1367 A.H / 1883-1948 C.E) and Taj al Ulama Mufti Muhammad Umar Quadri Ashrafi Nayimi (d.1385 A.H / 1965 C.E)Tafsir, Sihah Sittah, Kalam (Philosophy), Mantiq (Logic) and most importantly Fiqh al Hanafi.
Baiyah & Khilafa
Ajmal al Ulama gave Baiyah to Imam al Huda Ahmad Raza Khan Muhaddith Quadri Hanafi Bareilvi in 1337 A.H / 1918 C.E in the Quadriya Barkatiya tariqah and received Ijazah in the Sihah Sittah and Khilafah in the Quadriya Barkatiya tariqah from Hujjat al Islam Hamid Raza Khan Quadri (1292-1362 A.H / 1875-1942 C.E). He was also the Khalifa of Makhdum al Awliya Mahbub ar Rabbani Shaykh al Mashaikh Sayyid Ali Husayn Ashrafi Quadri Chishti Kichochavi in the Quadriya Chishtiya Ashrafiya tariqah. Ajmal al Ulama received Ijazah in issuing Fatawa from Sadr al Afazil Sayyid Nayimuddin Ashrafi Muradabadi in 1343 A.H / 1925 C.E.
In 1344 A.H / 1926 C.E Ajmal al Ulama founded Markazi Madrasa Ahlus Sunnah at Sambhal which later came to be known as Jamiya Ajmal al Ulum.
Ajmal al Ulama went for Hajj and Ziyarah in 1367 A.H / 1948 C.E. In Madinah al Munawwarah he met Qutb al Madinah Ziyauddin Ahmad Quadri Razvi Ashrafi Hanafi Madani (1294-1401 A.H / 1877-1981 C.E), the Khalifah of Imam al Akbar Ahmad Raza Khan Muhaddith Bareilvi and Shaykh al Mashaikh Sayyid Ali Husayn Quadri Ashrafi Kichochavi who received him with much love and respect. The Wahhabiya were forcing the Ahl us Sunnah for a debate on Ilm al Ghayb, Qutb al Madinah deputised him to debate with the Wahhabiya of Madinah al Munawwarah on the topic of Ilm al Ghayb from the side of Ahl us Sunnah which he won successfully and was congratulated by the Ahl us Sunnah scholars of Madinah. The judge for this debate was Shaykh Khurshid Ali Khan.
Ajmal al Ulama passed away in 1383 A.H / 1963 C.E at Sambhal, Muradabad after serving the Ahl us Sunnah for almost 38 years and raising a battalion of great scholars such as:
1.. Habib al Ulama, Shaykh al Hadith Mufti Muhammad Habibullah Ashrafi Nayimi, Jamiya Nayimiya, Muradabad.
2.. Ashfaq al Ulama, Mufti al A'zam Rajasthan Mufti Muhammad Ashfaq Husayn Quadri Razvi Ashrafi Nayimi, Rajasthan, India.
3.. His elder son on Mufti Muhammad Awwal Nayimi, Lahore, Pakistan.
4.. His son in Law Mufti Muhammad Husayn Ashrafi Nayimi, Founder of Jamiya Nayimiya, Lahore, Pakistan.
5.. His younger son Mufti Muhammad Ikhtisaruddin Ahmad Nayimi, Rector Jamiya Ajmal al Ulum, Sambhal, Muradabad.
6.. Shaykh Manazir Husayn Nayimi Sambhali, former Head Scholar of Dar al Ulum Manzar al Islam, Bareily, India.
7.. Hafiz al Millat Hafiz Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Quadri Ashrafi Mubarakpuri, founder of Jamiya al Ashrafiya Misbah al Ulum, Mubarakpur, India.
8.. Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Tayyib Danapuri.
9.. Shaykh Budayl Ahmad Khan Razvi.
10.Shaykh al Hadith Muhammad Ismail Razvi, former Shaykh ul Hadith of Jamiya Ajmal ul Ulum.
11.Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Afzaluddin Hyder Nayimi.
12.Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Nayimi, Jamiya Ajmal al Ulum.
13.Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad Mustafa Ali Nayimi, Jamiya Ajmal al Ulum.
14.Shaykh Mufti Abdus Salam Nayimi Sambhali.
15.Shaykh Aley Hasan Nayimi Sambhali, Shaykh al Hadith.
Most of the Khulafah of Hujjat al Islam Hamid Raza Khan were master Debators such as Imam al Manazirin Shayr al Bisha Ahlus Sunnah Mufti Hashmat Ali Khan Quadri Razvi Lukhnavi, Mujahid al Millat Habib ur Rahman Quadri Ashrafi, Muhaddith al A'zam Pakistan Sardar Ahmad Muhaddith Quadri Chishti Razvi and last but not least Ajmal al Ulama Mufti Muhammad Ajmal Quadri Razvi Nayimi.
The following are the major debates in which Ajmal al Ulama participated along with other scholars of Ahl us Sunnah.
1.>> Ajmal al Ulama, Taj al Ulama Umar Ashrafi Nayimi VERSUS the Deobandi scholars headed by Shaykh Abul Wafa Shahjahanpuri in 1350 A.H / 1932 C.E at Chandusi, Muradabad.
2.>> Ajmal al Ulama, Taj al Ulama Mufti Umar Ashrafi Nayimi, Arshad ul Quadri Razvi VERSUS the Deobandi scholars headed by Shaykh Tahir Gayavi at Jamshedpur, India.
3.>> Ajmal al Ulama, Taj al Ulama Mufti Muhammad Umar Ashrafi Nayimi, Habib al Ulama Muhammad Habibullah Ashrafi Nayimi, Imam al Nahv Sayyid Ghulam Jilani Ashrafi Meruthi, Umdat al Muhaddithin Mubinuddin Muhaddith Quadri Razvi Amrohi, Ashfaq al Ulama Muhammad Ashfaq Husayn Nayimi VERSUS the Deobandiya scholars led by Shaykh Abul Qasim Shahjahanpuri of Madrasa Shahi Hayat al Ulum, Amroha on Topic of "The Possibility of Lying on part of Allah" (Imkan ul Kizb) at Gaya, Muradabad in June 1961 C.E.
4.>> Muhaddith al A'zam Pakistan Sardar Ahmad Quadri Razvi, Ajmal al Ulama, Mujahid al Millat Habib al Rahman Quadri Ashrafi VERSUS the Deobandiya scholars led by Shaykh Manzur Ahmad Sambhali at Bareily in 1354 A.H / 1935 C.E.
5.>> Ajmal al Ulama, Shayr al Bisha Ahlus Sunnah Mufti Hashmat Ali Khan Quadri Razvi Lukhnavi, Taj al Ulama Mufti Umar Ashrafi Nayimi VERSUS the Deobandiya scholars headed by Shaykh Manzur Ahmad Sambhali on the Topic of "The Knowledge of Unseen" (Ilm ul Ghayb) at Sambhal, Muradabad.
6.>> Ajmal al Ulama, Shaykh Muzaffar Husayn Quadri VERSUS Shaykh Iqan ur Rahman Deobandi at Ahmadabad.
Bibliography of Ajmal al Ulama's Works
1.. Ajmal al Fatawa al Ma'ruf Fatawa al Ajmaliya:
Ajmal al Ulama Mufti Muhammad Ajmal Quadri received the general permission to issue Fatwa from Sadr al Afazil Sayyid Nayimuddin Quadri Ashrafi Muradabadi in 1343 A.H / 1925 C.E. He gave Fatawa continuosly for 38 years until his death in 1383 A.H / 1963 C.E.
Thematized and Edited by our erudite scholar Fakhr al Ulama Mufti Muhammad Hanif Khan Quadri Razvi Bareilvi in Four (4) volumes spanning approximately 2600 pages. The Fatawa collection has been divided into 15 Topics and 85 Chapters based on Fiqh titles namely>>>
(1). Kitab al Aqaid wal Kalam,(2). Kitab al Taharah, (3). Kitab al Salat, (4). Kitab al Janayiz, (5). Kitab al Saum, (6). Kitab al Zakat, (7). Kitab al Hajj, (. Kitab al Nikah, (9).Kitab al Talaq,(10). Kitab al Buyu', (11). Kitab al Farayiz, (12). Kitab al Seed wal Zabaih, (13). Kitab al Iman wal Nuzur, (14). Kitab al Radd wal Manazirah, (15). Kitab al Khitr wal Ibahata.
Fatawa al Ajmaliya contains 1131 Fatawa apart from 10 monologues namely: Ajmal al Maqal, Atar al Kalam, Tahayif al Hanafiya, Photo ka Jawaz, Qawl al Faysal, Ajmal al Irshad, Ajmal al Kalam, Tufan al Najdiyat, Barish e Sangi, Afzal al Ambiya. This Fatawa collection is very important as Ajmal al Ulama refutes and answers the Wahhabiya Deobandiya Scholars Shaykh Manzur Ahmad Sambhali, the Mufti al A'zam of Deobandiya Shaykh Mufti Kifayatullah Shahjahanpuri.
This Fatawa collection was published for the first time in 1425 A.H / 2004 C.E. by Islamic Publishers, New Delhi.
2.. Ajmal al Maqal li arif Ruyat al Hilal:
This treatise is an expansion of the works of Imam al Huda Ahmad Raza Khan pertaining to the problems of Ruyat al Hilal (Moon Sighting) 'Azki al Hilal' and 'Turq Asbat al Hilal'. Ajmal al Ulama expanded them in relation to the modern methods of Moon Sighting.
3.. Atar al Kalam fi Ihtisan al Mawlid wal Qiyam:
When Questions related to Mawlid and Qiyam were sent to Dar al Ulum Deoband from Kanpur, the Mufti of Deobandiya Mahdi Hasan gave the Fatwa of Biddah (Innovation) and Prohibition, he refuted the Concept and Doctrine of Hazir and Nazir of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam). Shaykh Mahdi Hasan went further in his fit of Wahhabism and tried to prove the (Hazir wa Nazir) Presence of Almighty Allah everywhere particularly in His Essence.
Allama Abdul Aziz Ashrafi Kanpuri sent a Questionnaire to Ajmal ul Ulama regarding the Fatwa of Mahdi Hasan Deobandi. Ajmal al Ulama replied the Questionnaire in the Light of Quran, Hadith, Ijma, Qiyas. He first explained the concept of Hazir wa Nazir and then refuted the False Fatwa of Shaykh Mahdi Hasan that Almighty Allah is Hazir wa Nazir with strong textual and intellectual proofs and proved that such Sayings / Doctrines amounted to Kufr.
4.. Tahayif al Hanafiya bar Sawalat al Wahhabiya:
It was published in 1961. This book contains answers to 11 questions forwarded by the Wahhabiya.
5.. Photo ka Jawaz dar Haq Azman Safar e Hijaz:
6.. Qawl al Faysal:
7.. Ajmal al Irshad fi Asl Hurf al Zad:
8.. Ajmal al Kalam fi Adm Qirat Khalf al Imam:
Ajmal al Ulama's another excellent work in answer to the Wahhabi Scholar Mawlana Sanaullah Amritsari's work. In this work Ajmal al Ulama proves that the Muqtadi (Follower) should listen and remain silent and must not recite Surah al Fatiha in Salah behind an Imam. He quotes the Ayahs of the Holy Quran, its Asbab al Nuzul (Reason for Revealation) and Tafsir according to the Hanafiya. He then further refutes the Wahhabiya quoting 45 Hadiths on this Issue.
9.. Tufan al Najdiyat wa Saba' Adab al Ziyarat:
A Questionaire comprising 7 Question was sent to Ajmal ul Ulama after the publication of 'Al Mansak al Wazih al Lateef' under the patronage of King Saud bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia. The following were the topics which were furnished in the questionnaire:
1]. The Supplication (Dua) to Allah, the Most High while facing the Rawzah (Dome) of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is Biddah and has no significance in Islam.
2]. To stand with folded hands before the Rawzah is extremely vile and disapproved, in-fact is the destruction of Faith (Iman).
3]. To kiss the Grill and Hujra of the Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is complete ignorance.
4]. Beseeching the help (Istighatha) of Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is Shirk al Akbar.
5]. To seek the Shafa'at (Intercession) of Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) in the world is not permissible
6]. The Visitation (Ziyarah) to the Rawdah of Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is Biddah.
7]. The Hadiths related to the Visitation of Rawdah are all Zaeef (weak) and find no mention in the major Hadith Compilations.
Ajmal al Ulama while answering these question wrote a Brief Introduction (Tamhid) introducing the Wahhabiya in the light of 10 Authentic Hadiths apart from 10 Major Signs to identify their Fitnah (Heresy). It also includes a breif description of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Najdi's conspiracies and attacks against the Muslims of Hijaz al Muqddus and the general Muslim Ummah.
Regarding the First question Ajmal al Ulama quoted the Hadiths and Sayings of Salaf regarding the Supplication at the Rawdah of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam).
Regarding the Second question Ajmal al Ulama quoted the proofs from the Fatawa of the Salaf that act is Mahbub (Desirable).
Regarding the Third question Ajmal al Ulama answered that it is better not to Kiss the Jali (Grill) in due respect but if under the influence of extreme love and reverence if one does kiss the grill then there is no harm in it. Ajmal al Ulama quotes "Wafa al Wafa" frequently to proof that the Salaf acted both the ways.
While answering the Fourth question on Beseeching for help from the Beloved Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) Ajmal al Ulama based his argument on 10 Ayah,10 Authentic Hadiths and the Ijma of the Scholars of the Ummah apart from 40 Hadiths in support of his argument.
Ajmal al Ulama while answering the Fifth question mentions detail documentary on the concept of Shafa'at (Intercession).
Ajmal al Ulama replies to Sixth question presenting numerous Ayah and 10 Hadiths along with 16 Stories / Incidents apart from quoting the scholars of the Salaf in this matter.
Ajmal al Ulama answers the Seventh question dealing with the weak Hadiths extensively while mentioning the different Chains of Narrators (Isnad) through which the Hadith was narrated. He further shows how the different Chains combine to form a Hasan (Fair) chain and proves that the acceptance of Zaeef (Weak) Hadiths is permissible if they are acted upon to gain virtues and merits. These Weak Hadiths can be accepted on the basis of ''Fazail al A'mal" while answering the second part of the question Ajmal al Ulama mentions the Major refrences like Shifa al Siqam Tibrani, Bayhaqi, Darqutni, Ibn Asakir, Kamil Ibn Athir, Mushir al A'zam, Akhbar al Madinah, Kitab al Dalail, Itihaf al Zayerin andWafa al Wafa.
10. Barish e Sangi bar Khafa e Sarbhangi:
Against those Muslim who included Hindu Gods and Goddesses among the Prophets of Islam and those who convey the message of Unity in Religion and Practice especially the Wahhabi Deobandi Chief Scholar Shaykh Ataullah Shah Bukhari.
11. Afzal al Ambiya wal Mursalin:
A refutation of Christian Doctrine of Trinity and Isa (alayhi is salam) being the Son of God.
12. Kashif Sunniyat wa Wahhabiyat:
13. Radd Sayf al Yamani dar Jawf Lukhnovi wa Thanvi:
Refutation of the Wahhabi Deobandi work Sayf Yamani of Shaykh Manzur Ahmad Numani who attacked the Ahl us Sunnah Scholars in a very derogatory manner and this book was dealt and refuted strongly by Ajmal al Ulama.
14. Sarmaya e Wayizin:
15. Riyaz al Shuhada:
16. Nizam e Shariyat:
17. Islami Ta'lim:
18. Madhab al Islam:
19. Faysla Haq wa Batil:
An excellent book on Imkan al Kizb (The Possibility of Lying), Ilm al Ghayb (The Knowledge of Unseen), Shafa'at (Intercession), Tasarruf, Tawassul (Intermediation), Nida (Calling), Ista'nat, Milad, Qiyam, Fatiha, Suwwam, Urs, Giyarvin with proofs from Quran , Hadith and the sayings of Salaf.
20. Ajmal al Seer fi Umr Sayyid al Bashir:
21.Radd Shihab al Saqib bar Wahhabi al Khayib:
The detailed refutation of the Wahhabi Deobandi combined malicious 136 page work titled "As Shihab al Saqib Ala' al Mustaraq al Kazib" (The Piercing Stones on The Lying Thief) by Shaykh al Islam of Deobandiya Mawlana Husayn Ahmad Tandvi Madani. Shaykh Husayn Ahmad in this work uses Derogatory words (Gaaliyan) not less than 640 times while addressing Imam ul Huda Ahmad Raza Khan. This work received its first refutation from the pen of Ajmal al Ulama in a 460 page work Titled: "Radd Sihab al Saqib bar Wahhabiya al Khayib" or "Ahqaq al Din ala Akabir al Murtadin" in 1374 A.H / 1954 C.E. Shihab al Saqib lacks proper Scholarly Etiquettes of refutation, contains Major Literary blunders, Translation Mistakes, Tahrif (Textual Manipulations) in original works of Imam ul Huda Ahmad Raza and wrong Ta'wil (Explanation) of the statements in the main Wahhabiya works in the Indian subcontinent like 'Taqwiyat al Iman' and 'Ek Rozi' of Shah Ismail Dehlavi, 'Tahzir al Naas' of Mawlana Qasim Nanotvi, 'Barahin al Qatiya' of Mawlana Khalil Ahmad Ambethvi, 'Fatawa Rashdiya' of Mawlana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, 'Hifz al Iman' and 'Bahisht e Zewar' of Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanvi. Shihab al Saqib also contains baseless ‘Iftira’ (Slanderous fabrication) on Imam Ahmad Raza Khan Muhaddith Bareilvi.
22.Mazamin Hazrat Ajmal al Ulama:
24.Hayat al Nabi:
The Sahaba and the Scholars of Salaf are in Consensus (Ijma) regarding the life of the Beloved Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) in his Noble Grave. According to Amir al Mu'minin fil Hadith Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehalvi in 'Madarij un Nubuh' for the past Islamic Centuries this Doctrine of Life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) was unanimously accepted among the Ummah and those who deviated from this Doctrine were only 5 people and his another treatise 'Aqrab al Sabal' entirely deals with this topic.
Imam al Wahhabiya Ismail Dehalvi in his famous controversial work titled Taqwiyat ul Iman refutes the Doctrine of Life of the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) in his Noble Grave in very derogatory manner. The Wahhabiya and Deobandiya followed the same position in their numerous works.
Salam wa Nasir
Translated and Edited by
Basharath Siddiqui Ashrafi.
Ahl us Sunnah Foundation.
4th December 2006 C.E, Monday.